Abū Ḥāmid Muḥammad ibn Muḥammad al-Ghazālī (c. 1058–1111) is often referred to – by both Muslims and non-Muslims - as "the greatest Muslim after Muhammad".
“The source of [Muslims’] infidelity was their hearing terrible names such as Socrates and Hippocrates, Plato and Aristotle…. [the followers of the philosophers] relate of the how, with all the gravity of their intellects and the exuberances of their erudition, they denied the scared laws and creeds and rejected the details of the religions and faiths, believing them to be fabricated ordinances and bedizened trickeries.”
Ghazali set out to place severe limits on philosophy. In fact those limits were so severe that philosophy in the Muslim world hardly survived his remonstrations.
“They [the philosophers] are absolutely to be condemned as infidels on three counts. The first of these is the question of the eternity of the world, and their statement that all substances are eternal; the second is their assertion that Allah does not encompass in his knowledge particular events occurring to individuals; the third is their denial of the resurrection of the body.”
Ghazali was quite modern in his approach to causality. Yet here again, despite his ideas pre-dating David Hume’s by 700 years, all his positivistic or empiricist demolishing was done for Allah and Islam.
Ghazali singled out Avicenna (Ibn Sina, 980-1037) for special attack.
The Eternity of the World
Avicenna, as well as Averroes later, denied bodily resurrection; or at least that was what many Muslims, including Ghazali, thought. You may think that the denial of bodily resurrection was a very sophisticated philosophical position to take at that time (the 11th century). However, Ghazali uses a sophisticated philosophical argument to show the opposite.