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Tuesday, 30 March 2010

What is Jihad? [by MMughal]

1)Word islam=submission. The quran is clear that the way of life acceptable to allah is only and only islam. Allah has sent muhammad with the true religion so that he may cause it to prevail all other religions. The quran repeatedly tells muslims to fight in the way of allah and the way of allah is islam.

2)From the very beginning of creation allah created 12 months in a year and only held four of them sacred. These are the months of peace ie in which muslims must not wage any war on infidels. However if during these months muslims are attacked by infidels then muslims must fight back and kill the infidels unless they repent from their disbelief in islam and submit to it. Other than the sacred months muslims must attack infidels wherever they find them.

3)If we read story of abraham and solomon in the quran, we can see how they behaved towards people who did not believe what they believed. Showing clearly aggression on part of prophets of allah.

4)In islam there are two kinds of binding duties for muslims a)for individuals and b)for ummah as a whole. Jihad like funeral is such a binding duty upon muslims that if sufficient number of people carry it out then duty is considered fulfilled by the ummah but if no one does it then the whole ummah has committed a grave sin.

5)Jihad became a binding duty upon ummah from the day allah imposed it upon muslims and it will remain a duty till islam rules the whole of infidel world. Islam does not require muslims to convert all infidels to islam but that all infidels must live under islamic shariah or jurisdiction. The problem with living under islamic rule is that muslims and nonmuslims are not accepted as equal. For example, a nonmuslim is not allowed to be the ruler of an islamic state etc etc.

This clearly shows that allah never intended for islam to be a peaceful religion. Had that been the case there ought not to be distinction between months for fighting and the months for peace ie sacred months. The idea of sacred months is funny as well because in a way it is telling muslims to tell their enemies not to attack them during these months because they are not allowed to fight. As if enemies only attack a people when they are ready to defend themselves. Allah thinks, enemies of muslims are as if looking for permission from muslims to attack muslims, how foolish of allah and muhammad and muslims.

002.208 YUSUFALI: O ye who believe! Enter into Islam whole-heartedly; and follow not the footsteps of the evil one; for he is to you an avowed enemy.

003.019 YUSUFALI: The Religion before Allah is Islam (submission to His Will): Nor did the People of the Book dissent therefrom except through envy of each other, after knowledge had come to them. But if any deny the Signs of Allah, Allah is swift in calling to account.

003.085 YUSUFALI: If anyone desires a religion other than Islam (submission to Allah), never will it be accepted of him; and in the Hereafter He will be in the ranks of those who have lost (All spiritual good).

009.033 YUSUFALI: It is He Who hath sent His Messenger with guidance and the Religion of Truth, to proclaim it over all religion, even though the Pagans may detest (it).

009.073 YUSUFALI: O Prophet! strive hard against the unbelievers and the Hypocrites, and be firm against them. Their abode is Hell,- an evil refuge indeed.

048.028 PICKTHAL: He it is Who hath sent His messenger with the guidance and the religion of truth, that He may cause it to prevail over all religion. And Allah sufficeth as a Witness.

009.036 YUSUFALI: The number of months in the sight of Allah is twelve (in a year)- so ordained by Him the day He created the heavens and the earth; of them four are sacred: that is the straight usage. So wrong not yourselves therein, and fight the Pagans all together as they fight you all together. But know that Allah is with those who restrain themselves.

005.002/3 YUSUFALI: O ye who believe! Violate not the sanctity of the symbols of Allah, nor of the sacred month

005.097/100 YUSUFALI: Allah made the Ka'ba, the Sacred House, an asylum of security for men, as also the Sacred Months,

009.037 YUSUFALI: Verily the transposing (of a prohibited month) is an addition to Unbelief: the Unbelievers are led to wrong thereby: for they make it lawful one year, and forbidden another year, in order to adjust the number of months forbidden by Allah and make such forbidden ones lawful. The evil of their course seems pleasing to them. But Allah guideth not those who reject Faith.

009.002 YUSUFALI: Go ye, then, for four months, backwards and forwards, (as ye will), throughout the land, but know ye that ye cannot frustrate Allah (by your falsehood) but that Allah will cover with shame those who reject Him.

009.005 YUSUFALI: But when the forbidden months are past, then fight and slay the Pagans wherever ye find them, an seize them, beleaguer them, and lie in wait for them in every stratagem (of war); but if they repent, and establish regular prayers and practise regular charity, then open the way for them: for Allah is Oft-forgiving, Most Merciful.

002.194 YUSUFALI: The prohibited month for the prohibited month,- and so for all things prohibited,- there is the law of equality. If then any one transgresses the prohibition against you, Transgress ye likewise against him. But fear Allah, and know that Allah is with those who restrain themselves.

002.217 YUSUFALI: They ask thee concerning fighting in the Prohibited Month. Say: "Fighting therein is a grave (offence); but graver is it in the sight of Allah to prevent access to the path of Allah, to deny Him, to prevent access to the Sacred Mosque, and drive out its members." Tumult and oppression are worse than slaughter. Nor will they cease fighting you until they turn you back from your faith if they can. And if any of you Turn back from their faith and die in unbelief, their works will bear no fruit in this life and in the Hereafter; they will be companions of the Fire and will abide therein.

002.191 YUSUFALI: And slay them wherever ye catch them, and turn them out from where they have Turned you out; for tumult and oppression are worse than slaughter; but fight them not at the Sacred Mosque, unless they (first) fight you there; but if they fight you, slay them. Such is the reward of those who suppress faith.

002.192 YUSUFALI: But if they cease, Allah is Oft-forgiving, Most Merciful.

002.193 YUSUFALI: And fight them on until there is no more Tumult or oppression, and there prevail justice and faith in Allah; but if they cease, Let there be no hostility except to those who practise oppression.

002.216 YUSUFALI: Fighting is prescribed for you, and ye dislike it. But it is possible that ye dislike a thing which is good for you, and that ye love a thing which is bad for you. But Allah knoweth, and ye know not.

004.095 YUSUFALI: Not equal are those believers who sit (at home) and receive no hurt, and those who strive and fight in the cause of Allah with their goods and their persons. Allah hath granted a grade higher to those who strive and fight with their goods and persons than to those who sit (at home). Unto all (in Faith) Hath Allah promised good: But those who strive and fight Hath He distinguished above those who sit (at home) by a special reward,-

004.102 YUSUFALI: When thou (O Messenger) art with them, and standest to lead them in prayer, Let one party of them stand up (in prayer) with thee, Taking their arms with them: When they finish their prostrations, let them Take their position in the rear. And let the other party come up which hath not yet prayed - and let them pray with thee, Taking all precaution, and bearing arms: the Unbelievers wish, if ye were negligent of your arms and your baggage, to assault you in a single rush. But there is no blame on you if ye put away your arms because of the inconvenience of rain or because ye are ill; but take (every) precaution for yourselves. For the Unbelievers Allah hath prepared a humiliating punishment.

009.029 YUSUFALI: Fight those who believe not in Allah nor the Last Day, nor hold that forbidden which hath been forbidden by Allah and His Messenger, nor acknowledge the religion of Truth, (even if they are) of the People of the Book, until they pay the Jizya with willing submission, and feel themselves subdued.

027.022 YUSUFALI: But the Hoopoe tarried not far: he (came up and) said: "I have compassed (territory) which thou hast not compassed, and I have come to thee from Saba with tidings true.

027.023 YUSUFALI: "I found (there) a woman ruling over them and provided with every requisite; and she has a magnificent throne.

027.024 YUSUFALI: "I found her and her people worshipping the sun besides Allah: Satan has made their deeds seem pleasing in their eyes, and has kept them away from the Path,- so they receive no guidance,-

027.025 YUSUFALI: "(Kept them away from the Path), that they should not worship Allah, Who brings to light what is hidden in the heavens and the earth, and knows what ye hide and what ye reveal.

027.027 YUSUFALI: (Solomon) said: "Soon shall we see whether thou hast told the truth or lied!

027.028 YUSUFALI: "Go thou, with this letter of mine, and deliver it to them: then draw back from them, and (wait to) see what answer they return"...

027.029 YUSUFALI: (The queen) said: "Ye chiefs! here is delivered to me - a letter worthy of respect.

027.030 YUSUFALI: "It is from Solomon, and is (as follows): 'In the name of Allah, Most Gracious, Most Merciful:

027.031 YUSUFALI: "'Be ye not arrogant against me, but come to me in submission (to the true Religion).'"

027.032 YUSUFALI: She said: "Ye chiefs! advise me in (this) my affair: no affair have I decided except in your presence."

027.033 YUSUFALI: They said: "We are endued with strength, and given to vehement war: but the command is with thee; so consider what thou wilt command."

027.034 YUSUFALI: She said: "Kings, when they enter a country, despoil it, and make the noblest of its people its meanest thus do they behave.

027.035 YUSUFALI: "But I am going to send him a present, and (wait) to see with what (answer) return (my) ambassadors."

027.036 YUSUFALI: Now when (the embassy) came to Solomon, he said: "Will ye give me abundance in wealth? But that which Allah has given me is better than that which He has given you! Nay it is ye who rejoice in your gift!

027.037 YUSUFALI: "Go back to them, and be sure we shall come to them with such hosts as they will never be able to meet: We shall expel them from there in disgrace, and they will feel humbled (indeed)."

021.051 YUSUFALI: We bestowed aforetime on Abraham his rectitude of conduct, and well were We acquainted with him.

021.052 YUSUFALI: Behold! he said to his father and his people, "What are these images, to which ye are (so assiduously) devoted?"

021.053 YUSUFALI: They said, "We found our fathers worshipping them."

021.054 YUSUFALI: He said, "Indeed ye have been in manifest error - ye and your fathers."

021.057 YUSUFALI: "And by Allah, I have a plan for your idols - after ye go away and turn your backs"..

021.058 YUSUFALI: So he broke them to pieces, (all) but the biggest of them, that they might turn (and address themselves) to it.

No matter what muslims do the context of the quran is such that it cannot be hidden. In fact the more people argue over the quranic text, the more problems pop out of it like a can of worms.

Imagine a muslim scholar claiming islam is religion of peace then some one throwing at him the question, why allah has divided the months of the year in to sacred and nonsacred long before he created people ie months of peace and war? No matter whatever the answer one gets it will be some sort of funny answer showing allah, muhammad and muslims are foolish.

Islamic concepts come from the quranic contexts and clear contexts cannot be denied by anyone save a bear face liar or the one who is forced to lie. For example, if a muslims claims islam is religion of peace then the quran should not have any single verses in it about anything that contradicts the concept of peace. However when we look into the quran, we find many verses that are about fighting. This clearly proves that peace is not the concept in the context of the quran so it has to be submission or subjugation.

Also if islam does not mean peace than it must mean war but the question arises, what kind of war? Defensive or offensive? Since war is allowed in the quran so defensive war is obviously allowed. Therefore the question arises, is offensive war also allowed? To answer this question we need to know the rule that all is lawful unless somethings is made unlawful. Allah says in the quran repeatedly that allah has made things lawful for muslims that are good eg see 2/168,172; 5/5; 6/142; 7/32,33 etc. Now if we read 2/216, allah says war is a good thing for you. In fact the quran repeatedly praises people who fight in the way of allah and condemns those who take no interest in war for allah and threatens them with life in hell. What does that tell us about islam? So no matter how muslims twist and turn, it is impossible to prove the quran is a book for peace.

If we go further and look at 2/216, it is said the war is a binding duty upon muslims. A duty jut like fasting for example. The wording starts the same ie KUTIBA ALAIKUM meaning imposed is upon you as a binding duty or that it is written for you (to fight) or (to fast). In 8/60 allah tells muslims to be ready for fighting at all times, so that infidels remain in awe of you muslims. Or in short muslims are told to be so well prepared for war that infidels live in fear of muslims.

02.183 YUSUFALI: O ye who believe! Fasting is prescribed to you as it was prescribed to those before you, that ye may (learn) self-restraint,-

002.216 YUSUFALI: Fighting is prescribed for you, and ye dislike it. But it is possible that ye dislike a thing which is good for you, and that ye love a thing which is bad for you. But Allah knoweth, and ye know not.

We find in the quran such verses as tell muslims to fight people for the simple reason that they do not believe in islam or because they reject islam eg 9/29 etc. The story of solomon is same, he finds out about sheba people who worship sun and tells them to convert are I will destroy you. So they decided to convert.

From historical point of view, it is not possible to explain the expansion of islam in such a short time other than muslims going on a conquest mission. This too is clear from the way muhammad told his followers to wage wars. He told them to invite people to islam as first things. If they accept leave them alone. if they refuse give them choice of jiziya=polltax or protection money. If they agree , do not wage war on them unless they break the treaty. Failing both, attack them but ensure you do not kill women and children or old folk etc nor damage any of their things eg crop or trees and other valuable. This he did not do out of kindness but to ensure that goods for booty were not damaged as they will lose value in that case. For the same reasons he asked masters to look after their slave so that they are more productive and useful.

The very idea that muslims must not kill women and children or damage property etc implies that these wars were offensive wars. If these wars were defensive then muslims needed to worry about their own women and children.

So it will be interesting if any muslim brother or sister was able to shed light on islam as a religion of peace. If they cannot then people who take islam as a religion of war cannot be won over by them. Failing reinterpretation of the quran, the ways forward would be muslim acceptance of the fact that the quran is not perfect and that they should leave problematic verses of the quran alone. May be it will be better to edit the quran. After all it has been edited a number of times before it was finalized in present form.

As for the hadith about greater and lesser jihad,

Ibn Taiymiyyah said in Al-Furqan PP. 44-45: "This hadith has no sources and nobody whomsoever in the field of Islamic knowledge has narrated it. Jihad against the disbelivers is the most noble of actions and moreover it is the most important action for the mankind."

Al-Khateeb al-Baghdadi reports it is daeef (weak) due to the narrator Khalaf bin Muhammad bin Ismail Al-Khiyam. Al-Haakim says, "His hadeeths are unreliable". Abu Ya'la Al-Khalili says, "He often adulterates, is very weak and narrates unknown hadith." (Mashari-ul-Ashwaq, Ibn Nuhas 1/31).

There is also the narrator Yahya bin Al-Ula who is a known liar and forgerer of hadith (Ahmad). Amru bin Ali, An-Nasai and Ad-Daraqutni state, "His hadith are renounced." Ibn Adi states, "His hadith are false." (Tahzeeb-ut-Tahzeeb 11/261-262)

Ibn Hajar said, "He was accused of forging hadith." (At-Taghrib). Adh-dhahabi said, "Abu Hatim said that he is not a strong narrator, Ibn Ma'een classified him as weak and Ad-Daraqutni said that he is to be neglected."

This hadeeth also contradicts clear verses of the Qur'an like the ones as follows.

"Not equal are those of the believers who sit (at home), except those who are disabled (by injury or are blind or lame, etc.), and those who strive hard and fight in the Cause of Allah with their wealth and their lives. Allah has preferred in grades those who strive hard and fight with their wealth and their lives above those who sit (at home). Unto each, Allah has promised good (Paradise), but Allah has preferred those who strive hard and fight, above those who sit (at home) by a huge reward; Degrees of (higher) grades from Him, and Forgiveness and Mercy. And Allah is Ever Oft Forgiving, Most Merciful." Qur'an (4:95-96)

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